Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is an integral growth factor that is active in angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and endothelial cell growth. It induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis, and induces permeabilization of blood vessels. It binds primarily to the FLT1/VEGFR1 and KDR/VEGFR2 receptors, heparan sulfate, and heparin. NRP1/Neuropilin-1 binds isoforms VEGF-165 and VEGF-145. The isoform VEGF165B binds to KDR but does not activate downstream signaling pathways, nor does it activate angiogenesis or inhibit tumor growth. VEGF is important in the pathophysiology of neuronal and other tumors, probably functioning as a potent promoter of angiogenesis. It is also involved with altering blood-brain-barrier functions under normal and pathological conditions. VEGF secreted from the stromal cells may be responsible for the endothelial cell proliferation in capillary hemangioblastomas which are composed of abundant microvasculature and primitive angiogenic elements represented by stromal cells. VEGF expression is regulated by growth factors, cytokines, gonadotropins, nitric oxide, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and oncogenic mutations.
Swiss-Prot Accession Number: P15692